Steroid Inhibitors Progesterone Female Hormone

Steroid Inhibitors Progesterone Female Hormone Product Name: Progesterone Synonyms: PROGESTERONE-WATER...
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Product Details

Steroid Inhibitors Progesterone Female Hormone


Product Name: Progesterone

Synonyms: PROGESTERONE-WATER SOLUBLE;progestin;PROGESTERONE;PRIMOLUT;17alpha-Hydroxy-6alpha-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione;17alpha-Progesterone;3,20-Pregnene-4;4-Pregnen-3,20-dion

CAS: 57-83-0

MF: C21H30O2

MW: 314.46

EINECS: 200-350-6


Chemical Properties

Melting point 128-132 °C(lit.)

alpha 186 º (c=1, ethanol)

density d23 1.166; d20 1.171

refractive index 182 ° (C=2, Dioxane)

Fp 2℃

storage temp. Store at RT

solubility H2O: 25 mg/mL, may be clear to slightly hazy

form powder

color Yellow to yellow-brown

Water Solubility <0.1 g/100 mL at 19 ºC

Merck 7773

Stability:Stable. Incompatible with strong oxidizing agents.


Test Results:

appearance

White or almost white crystalline power or colorless crystals

white crystalline power, micronized

assay

97.0-103.0%

99.5%

infrared absorption

the transmission minima in the IR spectrum obained with the substance correspond in position and relative size to those in the spectrum obtained with progessterone CRS.

complies

thin-layer chromatography

conforms to results A and results B

complies

specific rotation

+186° to 194°

+188°

impurity B

0.5% max

0.09%

impurity C

0.5% max

0.2%

impurity G

0.5% max

not detected

any unspecified impurity

0.1% max

0.03%

total impurities

0.8% max

0.3%

loss on drying

0.5% max

0.1%

granularity

D(0.90)≤20μm

11.852um


Description

Progesterone is a hormone released by luteal cells in the ovaries which contains 21 Carbon Atoms. Progesterone is also a crucial metabolic intermediate in the production of other endogenous steroids. There are two crystal forms of progesterone, that are type-α and type-β, the two types have similar physiological activity. Type-α is precipitated from dilute ethanol as orthorhombic white prismatic crystal, while type-β is orthorhombic white needle crystal, they are both insoluble in water, but soluble in ethanol, ethyl ether, chloroform, acetone, dioxane and concentrated sulfuric acid.


Progesterone can be released by the ovary, placenta and adrenal cortex. Its physiological function mainly manifests in promoting estrogen treated over thicken lining of the uterus to continue the development, proliferation and thickening and hypertrophy, soften and secretion of mucus in order to make good condition for implantation of the fertilized egg. After the implantation, early stage survival and development of fertilized egg is also under the control of the high progesterone release. As a result, progesterone is a very important hormone in the female reproductive system, and it is also an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones. All steroid hormone releasable glands can produce progesterone, but only ovarian and placenta can release progesterone as the main hormone. Ovarian will release large amount of progesterone in the luteal phase after ovulation by granulose luteal cells, so progesterone is also named as progestin. Progesterone will decrease in result of corpus luteum atrophy. For normal women, placenta will becomes the main organ maintain progesterone after 8 to 9 weeks of pregnancy, accompany with the ovary releasing until the end of pregnancy.


Uses

The main physiological effects of progesterone:

1. Progesterone can maintain the female animal pregnancy, and cause a series of physiological changes, such as inhibition of female estrus.

2. Progesterone has the power to promote the thickening of the lining of the uterus, promote the bending of the gland and to increase secretion function.

3. Progesterone can inhibit the peristalsis of the uterus, and contribute to the cervix contraction, secretion of mucus, etc.. These physiological changes provide suitable environment for the operation, growth and development of early embryos, as well as the continued growth of the fetus.

4. Small amount of progesterone is also used in combination with the hormone estrogen to promote female estrus. The synergy between progesterone and prolactin can promote the development of mammary glands.

5. Progesterone is involved in the feedback regulation of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary, which makes the balance of the animal reproductive hormones. In vivo, progesterone content of all sorts of livestock follicular phase is below 1 ng/ml, while in bovine corpus luteum period is approximately 4 ng/ml, pregnancy period is about 18 ng/ml.

6. Formerly biochemical study shows that progesterone modulates action as progestogens, clinical for the treatment of habitual abortion, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea and other symptoms. One of progesterone's most important functions is as hormone drugs, to promote and maintain the uterine changes in the early stage of pregnancy, used in habitual abortion, irregular menstruation, etc.. In addition, progesterone also behaves as steroid hormone drug as well as progestogens, which is used in treatment of threatened abortion.


Preparation

Progesterone can be obtained by oxidation of the pregnenolone. Dry toluene was added to a oven dried reaction kettle, and then cyclohexanone and pregnenolone were added in order with vigorous stirring to dissolve. Side product H2O was removed by Soxhlet extraction with toluene steam, aluminium isopropoxidequickly was added flowingly, the oxidation reaction was hold on at 115 oC for 2h, cooling to 80 oC, add 5% dilute sulfuric acid under stirring then stand by until water and toluene separated, the toluene layer was extracted with water to neutrality and then distillation off toluene and cyclohexanone. Cooling, filtering, filter cake was beated with petroleum, filtering, washing with petroleum, dried as crude progesterone. The crude product was dissolved in ethanol, decolorized by activated carbon, recrystallized to get the final product, yield 80%. Another way to produce progesterone is choosing the 16-Dehydropregnenolone acetate as start material, treated consecutively by catalytic hydrogenation, alkali hydrolysis, oxidation by aluminum isopropoxide, to get the progesterone as final product.


Description:

Pregnenolone (3β-hydroxypregn-5-en-20-one), also known as P5, is an endogenous steroid hormone. It is the precursor of the progestogens, mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens, as well as the neuroactive steroids. In addition, pregnenolone is biologically active in its own right, acting as a neurosteroid.

Like other steroids, pregnenolone consists of four interconnected cyclic hydrocarbons. It contains ketone and hydroxyl functional groups, two methyl branches, and a double bond at C5, in the B cyclic hydrocarbon ring. Like many steroid hormones, it is hydrophobic. Its esterified version, pregnenolone sulfate, is water-soluble.

Pregnenolone undergoes further steroid metabolism in one of three ways.


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