High quality cosmetic ingredients Copper peptide Copper tripeptide-1 GHK-Cu CAS 49557-75-7
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Product name: (GHK)2-Cu(Copper Peptide)
Appearance :Blue powder
CAS No: 49557-75-7
Molecular Formula: C28H46N12O8Cu
Copper is an important trace element that has been found to be important in wound healing and enzymatic processes.Lysyloxidase is an important enzyme in collagen and elastin production and it is dependent upon the action of copper. Tyrosinase and cytochrome c oxidase require copper as well.The detrimental effects of free radicals on the skin have been elucidated in basic science research into skin photoaging. Superoxide dismutase acts as an important antioxidant and requires copper as a cofactor. The peptide GHK spontaneously complexes with copper and facilitates the uptake of copper by cells. This peptide sequence is found in proteins of the extracellular matrix such as the αchain of collagen, and it is believed to be released during wounding and inflammation. A feedback stimulation of collagen repair has also been proposed for this peptide, but the main benefit to photoaged skin is believed to be the enhanced delivery of copper.
GHK-Cu is highly recommended by USA dermatologists, has functions of reversing skin age, skin renewal, scarless healing, removal of skin lesions with high safety.
It is used as active ingredients in cosmetics production. GHK-Cu is useful in anti-aging products and wrinkle treatment products such as gels, serums, lotions and creams. And has promising market demand.
GHK peptide has anti-inflammatory properties. Even though an exact mechanism remains unclear, in a recent study GHK and its copper complexes decreased TNF-alpha-dependent IL-6 secretion in normal human dermal fibroblasts. Because of the anti-inflammatory properties, copper-peptides could replace corticosteroids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in treatment of inflammatory skin conditions. They also can reduce UV-induced Erythema.
Radioactive anti-cancer treatment slows cell replication by breaking DNA strands. A recent study showed GHK-Cu's ability to restore function of irradiated fibroblasts to that of intact cells. The researchers used cultured human fibroblasts obtained from cervical skin that was either intact or exposed to radioactive treatment (5000 rad). At a very low (1 nanomolar) concentration, GHK-Cu stimulated irradiated fibroblasts growth and increased their production of growth factors bFGF and VGF to the point where it became even higher than that of both the irradiated and intact control cells.
In 2005, Ahmed et al. demonstrated that GHK promotes nerve regeneration. Axon regeneration was studied using collagen tubes with incorporated peptides. GHK increased migration of hematogenous cells into collagen tube, production of nerve growth factors, expression of integrins and the rate of regeneration of myelinated nerve fibers. In addition, GHK also increased axon count and proliferation of Schwann cells compared to the control.
Effect on stem cells
In 2009, a group of researchers from the Seoul National University (Republic of Korea) demonstrated that the copper-peptide GHK-Cu stimulated proliferation of keratinocytes and increased expression of integrins and p63 protein in the epidermal stem cells. Since p63 is considered to be an important marker of stem cell and anti-senescence protein, the authors concluded that GHK-copper is able to recover epidermal stem cells and increase their ability to repair tissue. In 2012, the same group reported that similar activity was observed for copper-free GHK.
In 2010, Hong Y. et al. demonstrated that GHK-Cu is able to reverse the expression of certain genes involved in metastatic spreading of colon cancer. GHK-Cu was effective at a very low concentration - 1mkM.
Recent genomic research suggests that GHK directly modulates gene expression, which may explain the diversity of its biological actions. Iorio et al. used a repository of transcriptional responses to compounds, the Connectivity Map (cMap), and MANTRA software to explore networks of compounds producing similar transcriptional responses. GHK, as one of the compounds studied, increased mRNA production in 268 genes while suppressing 167. GHK was found to reverse the gene-expression signature of emphysematous destruction found in lung tissue obtained from smokers with COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease). The gene expression signature associated with emphysema severity included 127 genes, involved in inflammation and repair. Using the Connectivity Map, researchers established that the peptide GHK downregulated genes involved in lung destruction and inflammation, while upregulating genes involved in tissue repair. Addition of 10 nanomolar GHK to lung fibroblasts from emphysema lungs restored their ability to remodel collagen and assemble it into properly organized fibrils.
Copper peptide GHK-Cu is widely used in anti-aging cosmetics (INCI name: Copper tripeptide-1). Several controlled facial studies confirmed anti-aging, firming and anti-wrinkle activity of copper peptide GHK-Cu.
Abdulghani et al. established that facial cream containing GHK-Cu and melatonin increased collagen in photoaged skin of 20 female volunteers, performing better than vitamin C and retinoic acid. The study was not controlled for cream vehicle application alone without active ingredients.
Finkley et al. conducted 12-week facial study on 67 women and reported that GHK-Cu cream applied twice daily improved aged skin appearance, increased thickness, reduced wrinkles and strongly stimulated dermal keratinocyte proliferation as determined by histological analysis of biopsies. The same study found copper peptide GHK-Cu to be non-toxic and non-irritating.
Copper peptide GHK-Cu and its analogues were found to stimulate hair growth. In some circumstances, the efficiency of synthetic analog of GHK-Cu was similar to that of 5% minoxidil. A commercial product GraftCyte was clinically proven to improve hair transplantation outcome. Shown to promote collagen production, using copper peptides topically on the scalp will help strengthen already existing hair, while stimulating growth in areas that are lacking thickness.
Research of the copper binding properties of GHK and two synthetic peptides, in which histidine was replaced with a synthetic amino acid, established that the amino acid glycine plays major role in copper binding, while lysine can interact with copper only at alkaline pH. At physiological pH, lysine is able to interact with a cellular receptor. The ability of GHK to interact both with copper and with a cellular receptor allows it to transfer copper into and from cells. The small size of GHK permits speedy traveling in extracellular space and its easy access to cellular receptors.
The molecular structure of the GHK copper complex (GHK-Cu) has been extensively studied using X-ray crystallography, EPR spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy as well as other methods such as titration. In the GHK-Cu complex, the Cu (II) ion is coordinated by the nitrogen from the imidazole side chain of the histidine, another nitrogen from the alpha-amino group of glycine and the deprotonated amide nitrogen of the glycine–histidine peptide bond. Since such a structure couldn’t explain a high stability constant of the GHK-Cu complex (log 10 =16.44 vs. 8.68 of the GH copper complex, which is similar to the GHK-Cu structure), it was proposed that another amino group participates in the complex formation. According to the recent study by Hureau et al. the Cu(II) is also coordinated by the oxygen from the carboxyl group of the lysine from the neighboring complex. Another carboxyl group of lysine from a neighboring complex provides the apical oxygen, resulting in the square-planar pyramid configuration. Many researchers proposed that at the physiological pH, GHK-Cu complexes can form binary and ternary structures which may involve amino acid histidine and/or the copper binding region of the albumin molecule. Lau and Sarkar found also that GHK can easily obtain copper 2+ bound to other molecules such as the high affinity copper transport site on plasma albumin (albumin binding constant log 10 =16.2 vs. GHK binding constant 16 log 10 =16.44). It has been established that copper (II) redox activity is silenced when copper ions are complexed with the GHK tripeptide, which allows the delivery of non-toxic copper into the cell.
Copper is a transition metal that is vital for all eukaryotic organisms from microbes to humans. A dozen enzymes (cuproenzymes) use changes in copper oxidation state to catalyze important biochemical reactions including cellular respiration (cytochrome c oxidase), antioxidant defense (ceruloplasmin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), detoxification (metallothioneins), blood clotting (blood clotting factors V and VIII), melanin production (tyrosinase) and the connective tissue formation (lysyl peroxidase). Copper is required for iron metabolism, oxygenation, neurotransmission, embryonic development and many other essential biological processes. Another function of copper is signaling – for example, stem cells require a certain level of copper in the media to start their differentiation into cells needed for repair. Thus, GHK-Cu’s ability to bind copper and to modulate its tissue level is a key factor determining its biological activity.
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